Lab members leaning casually around an eye chart.

Chandna Lab (SEELAB)

Binocular vision, Strabismus, Amblyopia, Cerebral Visual Impairment

Our laboratory investigates mechanisms of normal and abnormal vision and ocular motility in children and adults with special emphasis on cerebral visual impairment, acquired brain injury, strabismus and amblyopia, 

We use remote research through telephone and video interviews to determine visually-guided behaviour and functional vision in everyday life.

In our physical laboratory space we use visual electrophysiology/EEG methods and with eyetrackers and infrared photorefractor we measure eye movements and accommodation simultaneoulsy.

There is a strong emphasis on translational research. We investigate globally common eye diseases in children and in adults associated with long-tem visual loss and morbidity with high socioeconomic costs and impacts.

Our aim is to improve detection, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes in childhood eye disease through rigorous scientific research. 

Current projects

Our projects involve remote telephone/video interviews and, in our physical laboratory we use non-invasive, quantitative methods, including: low-channel and high-density EEG steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP); eye tracking and photorefraction in correlation with clinical findings: 

  • Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI): Exploring low, mid and higher visual function deficits (HVFDs) in children with mild to moderate CVI
  • Amblyopia and/or Strabismus : Studying mechanisms of visual function loss and recovery in amblyopia and strabismus
  • Strabismus: Studying mechanisms of vergence and accommodation in strabismus and other clinical conditions (CVI, TBI)
  • Eye Dominance:  role ocular dominance, sensory and motor, in oculomotor stability.
  • Reading studies wih simultaneous messures of oculomotor control and accommodaton..
  • Loss of one eye: Comparing monocular and binocular sensory and motor functions
  • Assessemnt and Intervention: Developing applications for visual assessment and training in babies and young children.

If you are interested in being a participant inour work; remote via videolink/telephone or in person in our lab; or indeed wish to know more about our work, please get in touch with us at

We are especially interested in the following eye conditions:

  • Cerebral Visual Impairment and Brain-Based disorders of visually guided behavior
  • Traumatic Brain Injury and other causes of Acquired Brain Injury
  • Strabismus (misaligned eyes) since childhood
  • Anismetropia (a significant difference in eyeglass prescription between the two eyes) since childhood
  • Amblyopia (poor vision in one or both eyes since childhood often associated with strabismus and anisometropia) 
  • Cataract in childhood 
  • Loss of one eye in childhood


Journal Articles
Chandna, A., Badler, J. B., Singh, D., Watamaniuk, S. N. J., & Heinen, S. J.. (2021). A covered eye fails to follow an object moving in depth. Scientific Reports, 11.
Chandna, A., Nichiporuk, N., Nicholas, S., Kumar, R., & Norcia, A. M.. (2021). Motion Processing Deficits in Children With Cerebral Visual Impairment and Good Visual Acuity. Investigative Ophthalmology Vision Science , 62(14), 1-17.
Saeed, M., Raza, S., Goyal, S., Cleary, G., Newman, W., & Chandna, A.. (2013). Presentation of Suspected Pediatric Uveitis. Seminars In Ophthalmology, 29.
  • Visual Functions in CVI Application

    Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI): An in-depth study of visual functioning in everyday life

    The purpose of this research study is to learn about how cerebral visual impairment affects everyday visually guided behaviours and determine interventions to treat the difficulties. This study is conducted remotely through telephone or video link and also in person at the laboratory.

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  • A diverse multi-ethnic group of parents/carers and children.

    CVI@SKI Meeting. A group for Parents of children with Cerebral Visual Impairment supported by clinicians, researchers and teachers of the visually impaired.

    We are a Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute sponsored,Little Learners Program, Lighthouse for the Blind, San Francisco supported information, communication research advocacy group consisting of SKI researchers, select clinicians, teachers of the visually impaired, and parents of children with cerebral visual impairment.

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  • Illlustration of cover test

    Eye Movements and Accommodation Patterns in Strabismus

    Strabismus misaligned eyes is a common developmental condition in young children that can lead to amblyopia or poor vision and other forms of low vision. This project looks at the eye movements in relation to accommodation or focusing power in these patients to determine predictors of strabismus and outcome of treatment, with the goal of improving early detection, intervention and treatment.

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  • Active

    Investigating Reading in Individuals with Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI)

    In this project, we aim to understand (i) how CVI affects reading, (ii) how current rehabilitation techniques or assistive technologies help improve reading in CVI and (iii) what more can be done to assist those individuals with CVI

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  • Vernier sweep schematic

    Patterns of Visual Deficits in Amblyopia

    Background Amblyopia means blunted sight in the Greek language and is a term clinicians use to describe decreased vision usually in one eye most commonly due to a focusing error (refractive error in one eye, very different from other eye - anisometropia) and/or a misalignment between the two eyes (strabismus or squint). Amblyopia is sometimes called “lazy eye”. This is different than being just near or far sighted which is a refractive error usually similar and in both eyes developing at any age and vision improves instantly on prescribing and wearing spectacles to correct the error.

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  • Active

    Reading in mTBI

    People with mTBI often complain about dificulty in reading in spite of normal results in usual eye exams.

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  • SEELAB Logo: anthropomorphized brain and eyeball icons holding hands

    SKERI Researchers Identify Potential Screening Questions for CVI

    Researchers at the SEELAB and collaborators at Alder Hey Children’s Hospital have validated the Higher Visual Function Question Inventory (HVFQI) an assessment tool for vision difficulties in everyday life in children with Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) and identified 11 of the fifty-one questions (the Top-11) that were highly sensitive in detecting these visual difficulties
  • Photo of Nick

    In Memoriam: Nikolay Nichiporuk

    The Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute mourns the tragic loss of our young colleague Nikolay (Nick) Nichiporuk, who has tragically and unexpectedly passed away. Nick joined us in July 2019 and worked full time as a Research Assistant in the lab of Dr. Arvind Chandna. Working within this group Nick played a vital role in developing research programs towards investigating vision problems in...
  • Dr. Arvind Chandna

    Dr. Arvind Chandna Receives the PMC Department of Ophthalmology Residency...

    Arvind Chandna , M.D., Senior Clinician Scientist at Smith Kettlewell Eye Research Institute was selected as a recipient of a CPMC Department of Ophthalmology Residency Teaching Award for 2020. This award was presented to him at the Barkan Research Symposium on Saturday, June 13, 2020, via Zoom. Dr. Arvind Chandna is part of the Voluntary Faculty Program for Teaching the Residents at the...
  • Arvind Chandna wins the William and Ruth Silverman Excellence in Community...

    We are very pleased to announce that Dr. Arvind Chandna was awarded The Sliverman Award at the 24th Annual Lowenfeld-Akeson Early Years Symposium (2020) on February 1st. The William and Ruth Silverman Excellence in Community Partnerships award is bestowed to a worthy clinician for outstanding contributions and connections to families of young children with visual impairments by a medical...