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    Causal Brain Connectivity between Hippocampus and Early Visual Subareas in Memory-Visualization

    SL-CN: Harnessing the Power of Drawing for the Enhancement of Learning across Levels of Vision Function

    This Science of Learning Collaborative Network brings together researchers and experts from the Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, University of Bamberg (Germany), Columbia University and Emory University to investigate how the visual art of drawing can enhance learning. Underlying learning principles and neural mechanisms will be considered, and how these can be harnessed for real-life learning enhancement. Though humans have been drawing for at least 30,000 years, little is understood about brain processes involved in this activity.

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    Stereopsis in Macular Degeneration

    Macular degeneration affects the central retina, often causing asymmetrical damage to the two eyes. How does this asymmetrical loss affect stereopsis — the percept of depth generated by the small separation of image features in the two eyes?

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    Two printed yellow triangles. The angles are removable and can be placed in a 180 deg half circle.

    The 3 Ps of 3D: Perception, Pedagogy, and Practice for 3D Printing

    3D printing is increasingly used in STEM education. How can it be made accessible to students who are blind or visually impaired?

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    Spectral ERG analysis of hypersensitivity to light in traumatic brain injury

    The purpose of this research study is to use the spectral electroretinogram (ERG) to deteremine how the retinal mechanisms of sufferers from abnormal light sensitivity due to head injury differ from those without abnormal light sensitivity.

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    A11Y COVID-19

    Accessible COVID-19 pandemic data are available at

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    Outreach at Smith-Kettlewell

    Smith-Kettelwell is deeply committed to supporting our community. 

    Please see the news tab for our upcoming and ongoing events. In the News tab, you will find information about our involvement in past outreach activities.

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    Plot of finger movement paths over a page of braille text

    Haptic Kinematics of Two-Handed Braille Reading in Blind Adults

    This page (currently under construction) accompanies a work-in-progress poster at the 2020 Eurohaptics meeting.

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    diagram of eyes tracking target and scotoma result

    Tracking a target in depth with central field loss

    Bilateral field loss due to maculopathy creates a scotoma that extends in depth — a volume scotoma. Morevoer the size of the scotoma depends on whether observers turn their eyes to track a target as it comes closer. This project investigates how the volume scotoma affects the ability to track oncoming targets in these individuals, and in controls with a simulated volume scotoma.

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    Reverberant Auditory Scene Analysis

    The world is rich in sounds and their echoes from reflecting surfaces, making acoustic reverberation a ubiquitous part of everyday life.

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    Patterns of Visual Deficits in Amblyopia

    Background Amblyopia means blunted sight in the Greek language and is a term clinicians use to describe decreased vision usually in one eye most commonly due to a focusing error (refractive error in one eye, very different from other eye - anisometropia) and/or a misalignment between the two eyes (strabismus or squint). Amblyopia is sometimes called “lazy eye”. This is different than being just near or far sighted which is a refractive error usually similar and in both eyes developing at any age and vision improves instantly on prescribing and wearing spectacles to correct the error.